Thursday, 31 March 2011

Refresh Your Blog Or Any Site Automatically

This tricks will help you to reffresh any site automatically. Just follow the tutorial below:-
  • Login to your blogger dashboard--> layout- -> Edit HTML
  • Scroll down until oyu see <head> .
  • Copy below code and paste it after the <head> code:-
    <meta HTTP-EQUIV='refresh' content='15;URL='/>
  • Replace with your blog or website URL.
  • 15 is the time period between 2 page refresh.Change it as your choice.
  • Now save your template and you are done.

Increase Mobile Visitor To Your Blog

This will really helpful to increase the number of mobile visitors of your blog. Just follow the tutorial below:-
  • Login to your blogger Dashboard--> Design- -> Edit HTML
  • Scroll down to where you see this code
    <b:include data='blog' name='all-head-content'/>
  • Now copy below code and paste it before that code:-
    <meta content='IE=EmulateIE7' http-equiv='X-UA-Compatible'/>
    <b:if cond='data:blog.isMobile'>
    <meta content='width=device-width,minimum-scale=1.0,maximum-scale=1.0' name='viewport'/>
    <meta content='width=1100' name='viewport'/>
Save your edit and you done...
p/s: just share it if you like this post......

10 Things That Can Take Forever to Download

The speed of internet connections has gotten faster and faster over the last decade. Items that used to take several minutes to download, now only take seconds. However, has connection speeds have increased, so have the file sizes associated with downloadable items. The list below shows some of the items that can still take quite a long time to download from the internet.

  1. Movies. Have you been considering downloading a movie off the internet and burning it to a DVD? Great idea! Just don’t plan on watching it in the next few hours because it will take more much longer to download the movie than it will to watch it.
  2. Full resolution photos. Even with a decent connection, full resolution pictures can take a while to download. They’ll take even longer to upload.
  3. Software upgrades or purchases. Some software includes some very large files. The more complex the software, the more files and the bigger the files, contained within the package. Many megabytes of computer files means mega-time to download those files.
  4. Games. Downloading of those Xbox games can take f-o-r-e-v-e-r, according to gamers. But so can running to the store to buy them, so…
  5. Browsers. If you decide you want to try out a new browser, you’ll need to give it some time to download the initial software and then some more time to download all the newest updates. Continue browsing on your old browser in the meantime.
  6. Virus updates on a new computer. When you install the virus protection software on your new computer, plan on it taking some time, especially if it is the trial version that came loaded on the machine. The basic version will need to load all the updates that have been released for the software since the date of the software. Often times that can be a year of more’s worth of updates.
  7. Windows updates on a new PC. This is another delay to expect when you are setting up a new PC. Your computer will check for windows security updates since the version installed on your PC at the dealer. Just like the virus updates, this can be a long list and may take quite sometime to complete. You should plan on one or more reboots during the process, as well.
  8. iTunes. If you’ve decided to join the rest of the crowd and download iTunes onto your computer for use with podcasts, music and other media files, don’t expect a two minute download. This is a big software package and will take a significant amount of time to download and install.
  9. Video files. Not all video files are large, but they can be. It will depend on the resolution of the video and the length of the video. Amateurs just beginning to attempt computer generated videos can, at times, create huge video files due to a lack of understanding of the process.
  10. Anything with graphics over a dialup connection. The speed of your internet connection will always be a factor in how long it takes to download files from the internet. Anything that takes a long time to download over a high-speed connection will take many, many times longer over a dialup connection. Downloading a movie over a dialup connection should not even be attempted.
We’ve become used to instant gratification in much of our life, and the internet is an area where that is especially true. To have to wait minutes or hours to receive what we requested with a simple mouse click can seem quite frustrating.

Sharing by bundledpackagedeals

Saturday, 26 March 2011

How To Insert Like Button Every Post In Your Blog

Are you already have like button in your blog? if you dont have or dont know how to insert the code, just follow the simple step below. I will show you how to put like button below evey post in your blogger page.
  • Login to your Blogger Account and go to Design > Edit HTML and click on the check box which says “Expand Widget Templates” 
  •  Press F3 on your keyboard and find for <data:post.body/> 
  • copy this code

    and paste in front of <data:post.body/>  see images below.

Lastly, save your edit and you will see like button in every posting inside your blog.
p/s: If you like this, just shre it to your friend.

Thursday, 24 March 2011

Improve Windows XP Shutdown Speed

This tweak reduces the time XP waits before automatically closing any running programs when you give it the command to shutdown.
Go to Start then select Run
Type 'Regedit' and click ok
Find 'HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop\'
Select 'WaitToKillAppTimeout'
Right click and select 'Modify'
Change the value to '1000'
Click 'OK'
Now select 'HungAppTimeout'
Right click and select 'Modify'
Change the value to '1000'
Click 'OK'
Now find 'HKEY_USERS\.DEFAULT\Control Panel\Desktop'
Select 'WaitToKillAppTimeout'
Right click and select 'Modify'
Change the value to '1000'
Click 'OK'
Now find 'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\'
Select 'WaitToKillServiceTimeout'
Right click and select 'Modify'
Change the value to '1000'
Click 'OK'

How To Check Your IP Address

What is IP Address?
Internet Protocol address is usually a numerical label assigned to each device(computer, printer and mobile phone)participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. Its role has been characterized as follows: "A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there. The designers of the Internet Protocol defined an IP address as a 32-bit number and this system, known as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is still in use today. However, due to the enormous growth of the Internet and the predicted depletion of available addresses , a new addressing system ( IPv6 ), using 128 bits for the address, was developed in 1995, standardized as RFC 2460 in 1998, and is being deployed worldwide since the mid-2000s. IP addresses are binary numbers, but they are usually stored in text files and displayed in human-readable notations, such as (for IPv4 ), and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 (for IPv6 ).
How to check your computer IP Address? Ok, just see the tutorial below:-
*Go to start/run type 'cmd' in XP or open Command Promfort for Vista and win7
*then type 'ipconfig' or you can type 'ipconfig/all' to see more info then press 'enter'.
*Now you will see your IP Address and other info for your Connection.

Download From Rapidshare Without Time Limit (javascript tips)

Downloading rapidshare sometime make our mode is totaly lost to downloading the file is we want to download it. Because for free user, they limit the size, the number of  download and the waiting time is so long to wait. Ok, we fucus during this time is the waiting time. So here im will going to show you the tricks to disable time counting and the download link will appear emmidiately. Dont waste your time to wait the bullshit..
  •  Choose the free user button to initiate the download.
  • Once the download ticket is reserved, the count down timer will start.
  • Skip the count down process by copying and pasting the following Javascript in the address bar.
  • Download link of the file from Rapidshare will appear immediately.

    or  use this
javascript:var c=0;
Then press Enter, or click on Go.
If the above script will be failed to work means the following Javascript will be used for you.
As above, just copy and paste the JavaScript into the address bar and press Enter or click Go.

Saturday, 19 March 2011

Firefox 4 Released on 22 March

From Mozilla:-
Today’s triage session concluded with all systems go for a Firefox 4 launch on March 22nd. We will continue to have triage sessions on a daily basis to watch for major issues; however, at this point, we’ve concluded RC1 will become Firefox 4 final.Firefox is the most popular browser for people who enjoy modding and adding plug-ins to use online.  In this regard it’s very different from it’s main rival Chrome which focuses on stripped-down simplicity.  Indeed the new IE9 has gone Chrome’s way so this could enable Firefox to regain some of the market share it’s lost in the last couple of years.
The final version ofd the browser will be available simultaneously for WIndows, Mac and Linux and it adds a few features that we’ve recently seen in other browsers including hardware-accellerated graphics rendering.
It’s an exciting time for the web browser industry as the war is well and truly back on after a few years of not very much going on at all.

Hot !!! Full Speed Download Free Premium Account

Yesterday im googling and im have found 16 premium account. So i just wanna share it with you..
feel free to use premium account from the folowing site......

Thursday, 17 March 2011

Nokia Secret Code List

Heres the usefull code for Nokia mobile phone user, just inserting the code like you want to call your contack number. Lets check out all of the secret code for Nokia mobile phone below:-

*3370# This Nokia code activates Enhanced Full Rate Codec (EFR) - Your Nokia cell phone uses the best sound quality but talk time is reduced my approx. 5% 
#3370# Deactivate Enhanced Full Rate Codec (EFR)
*#4720# Activate Half Rate Codec - Your phone uses a lower quality sound but you should gain approx 30% more Talk Time
*#4720# With this Nokia code you can deactivate the Half Rate Codec
*#0000# Displays your phones software version, 1st Line : Software Version, 2nd Line : Software Release Date, 3rd Line : Compression Type
*#9999# Phones software version if *#0000# does not work
*#06# For checking the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI Number)
#pw+1234567890+1# Provider Lock Status. (use the "*" button to obtain the "p,w" and "+" symbols)
#pw+1234567890+2# Network Lock Status. (use the "*" button to obtain the "p,w" and "+" symbols)
#pw+1234567890+3# Country Lock Status. (use the "*" button to obtain the "p,w" and "+" symbols)
#pw+1234567890+4# SIM Card Lock Status. (use the "*" button to obtain the "p,w" and "+" symbols)
*#21# This phone code allows you to check the number that "All Calls" are diverted to

Wednesday, 16 March 2011

Speed Up Internet Connection Using DNS(Domain Name System) 100% Working.

Hello guys..heres i want to show you how to speed up yours internet conection using Google public DNS(Domain Name System). Google give a service called Google Public DNS to help speed up your web browsing. This is an alternative to the DNS provided by your ISP gived to you and sometime its to slow.
Domain Name Servers (DNS) are translators
that convert website
names to IP Addresses.
As we know, there are many DNS IP Client used to accelerate data receiving from internet to pc but for now, Google is the best DNS.
Ok.. Just follow this step to setup Google DNS to your web browser:-

1.Go to Start -> Control
2. Click on Network
    Connections in Control
3. Right click on Local Area Connection and then click on Properties
4. Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and then click on properties.
5. Select Use the following DNS server addresses in filed Preferred DNS server type and in 
    Alternate DNS server type
Thats try it your self and just leave your comment for the result you got...

Sunday, 13 March 2011

Awesome Fun Note Pad Tips N Tricks On Pc Part 5 (download on rapidshare unlimited)

Ok......heres the simple tricks, fiirst open notepad on your pc and type this:-
@echo off
echo ipconfig/flushdns
echo ipconfig/release

second, save it as bypassrapid.bat or any name with the extention .bat and save as all file.
third, every time you want to download from rapidshare, just double click the file and you will download there for unlimited. 

Saturday, 12 March 2011

Create A Keyboard Shortcut To Open Any A Selected Folder U Want.

How to do that? haha just check out this tutorial guys....
  1. Click on Start, All Programs, Accessories, and then click Windows Explorer.
  2. In Windows Explorer (the program that appears when you open folders such as My Computer, My Documents, My Pictures, or My Music), right-click the folder to which you want instant access, click Send To, and then click Desktop.
  3. On your desktop, right-click the new shortcut, and then click Properties.
  4. On the Shortcut tab, click in the Shortcut key box. Now press the letter on your keyboard that you want to use to open the folder.
    Note: In the Shortcut key box, Microsoft Windows XP automatically adds CTRL+ALT before the key you press, because to use the shortcut to open a folder, you have to hold down both the CTRL and ALT keys simultaneously, while pressing the letter you chose. This way, your folder won't open every time you type that letter.
  5. Click OK. Now test your shortcut. Hold down the CTRL and ALT keys, and then press the letter you chose.
  6. This tip can be applied to folders, programs, and text file shortcuts that are placed on the desktop.


Speed Up Your Menu Display On Windows OS

Ok guys, just follow this step to speed up your menu display on your PC :-
  1. Click Start. Right-click My Computer and then click Properties.
  2. Click the Advanced tab. In the Performance area and click Settings.
  3. On the Visual Effects tab in the Performance Options dialog box, untick/clear check box Fade or slide menus into view.
  4. Click Apply and click OK.
  5. The last step before you close the System Properties, click Ok and u've done.
  6. Try open the Menu and you will see it appear instantly.

Friday, 11 March 2011

Google Tips N Tricks Part 5

Google have many secret usefull can check out this

In the address bar type this

you will see the great language tools.

You can try this translator also

Here's more google fun tricks.....

in address bar type this

you will see google search pages like from miror...

Google Tips N Tricks Part 4

Here's The Secret............

Type in adress bar

you will see the goverment search page.......

 Google Doodles  

Type in adress 


You will see the awesome logo from google.....

Awesome Fun Note Pad Tips N Tricks On Pc Part 4(To Make Matrix With NotePad)

Open notepad and type in
@echo off
color 2
echo %random% %random% %random% %random% %random% %random% %random% %random% %random% %random% %random% %random% %random% %random%
goto start

Save it as matrix.bat
when you open it, you will see matrix is running.... 

Awesome Fun Note Pad Tips N Tricks On Pc Part 3

Open notepad-Type this app can break in the first line-Save the File and close it.
After opening the file again, you will see that it contains all encoded characters. It happens if we enter four words separated by spaces, wherein the first word has 4 letters, the next two have three letters each, and the last word has five letters. Then Notepad Automatically hides the text into unknown code.
It also works if you type AAAA BBB CCC DDDDD or any other 4-3-3-5 letter combination.

Open notepad -Type
@echo off
msg * I am tired.
shutdown -c “So, Bye Bye” -s

-Save the File as AnyName.bat
When you will open this file, your Computer will Shut down on its own after showing the message in it.

Open notepad - Type
@ECHO off
START %SystemRoot%\system32\notepad.exe
GOTO top

-Save the File as AnyName.bat
When you try to open this file, Multiple Notepad Windows will keep opening up.

Awesome Fun Note Pad Tips N Tricks On Pc Part 2

Open notepad -Type .LOG in the first line-Save the File and close it. When you open this file again, you will see the current date and time and you can enter your activities there to keep a Log of what you have done at what time. You can save this file as a Diary! You can press F5 to refresh and get the current time.

Open notepad -Type Q33n-Increase Font size to 72 - Change Font to Wingdings
This will show you how the World Trade Center episode happened. First the Plane hit two towers and then caused lots of damage.

Sunday, 6 March 2011

What Is MAN? (Metropolitan Area Network)

This stands for Metropolitan Area Network. The term is not used very much, and it is really just a variation on the WAN concept. You can think of a MAN as a WAN that is totally contained within the boundaries of a single metropolitan area (a city). read more

What Is WAN? (Wide Area Network)

What is WAN ? here the explaination : WAN is a Wide Area Network. In many cases, a WAN consists of multiple LANs or MANs. A WAN can be huge (even covering the entire planet or extending out into space), and the connections between computer may or may not be permanent. read more

Whats is LAN? (Local Area Network)

LAN stands for Local Area Network. These are networks that are limited to a specific, relatively small area. Usually this is just a single office, warehouse, building or even an apartment. Generally a LAN does not exceed the boundary of a single building and the connections between computers is permanent. read more

What is SMTP? (Simple Transfer Mail Protocol)

SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol and used to sending email messages between different email servers. SMTP is reliable and efficient way to transfer email. Today mostly email systems used SMTP to transfer their email on the Internet and the POP (Post Office Protocol) or IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) protocol is used for retrieved email at client end.

What Is FTP? (File Yransfer Protocol)

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. It is a way for transferring files from one computer to anther remote computer or networks and this is most popular and fast way to transfer data from one location to another location using internet. FTP works almost same like HTTP for transferring web site from web server to user end. FTP uses the TCP/IP  protocol for data transfer. The common function of FTP to download a file from remote server using the internet connection and  webmaster upload their web site to the internet using FTP. Today FTP is the backbone of the MP3 music and support online game craze.
Usually a user needs a key get into FTP site is the username and password to access the files on the remote servers. When a user try to connecting to FTP site then you will be prompted for a username and password. The common facility known as anonymous FTP actually works via a special type of public guest account implemented on the remote system when downloading from the internet.
There is a different FTP client programs are available for uploading and downloading files to and from the server. The most commonly used FTP client programs are WS_FTP and Cute FTP. read more

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)

GSM network is designed by using digital wireless technology. It offers compatible wireless services to all mobile users in all over the world. The basic requirements for GSM are following:-
  • Services
  • Quality of services and security
  • Radio frequency utilization
  • Network   
Services: The services, which are provided by the system, should be potable to all Mobile Stations or Mobile Phones so that it can b used in all over the world. 
Quality of services and security: The quality of both voice and data services of GSM should be good. The voice data is encoded in digital form by using a modulation technique i.e.Gussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK).The security features should be provided by the system to protect the network against unauthorized users. 
Radio frequency utilization: The system should use the available band of frequencies (For uplink: 890-915MHz & For downlink: 935-960MHz) efficiently. 
Network: Network designers manage the identification and numbering plans while switching and mobility management based upon signaling system i.e. Signaling System Number 7(SS7). 

GSM Architecture 

The main component groups of GSM architecture are:
  • Mobile Stations (MSs)
  • Base Station System (BSS)
  • Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS)  
 Mobile Stations (MSs):
The Mobile Station (MS) consist of two operational parts.
  • Mobile Equipment (ME)
  • Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) 
Mobile Equipment (ME): This is the hard ware used by the subscriber to access the network and it has a unique identity number known as International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). 
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM): This is a type of electronic card that is plugs into ME and contains detailed information about the mobile subscriber.
Base Station System (BSS):
BSS is central equipment, which is located at the cell site. It provides the link between MS and NSS. The BSS consists of two operational parts. 
Base Transceiver Station (BTS): BTS consists of transmitting and receiving antennas and signaling equipment that provide air interface for a cell to route the call. BTS communicates with the MS.A single BTS can support one or more cells. 
Base Station Controller (BSC): All switching functions, which are performed in MSC, are controlled by BSC. It also supports handoff strategies and allocate or release temporary channels for those users whose needed handoff. Several BTSs can be controlled by a single BSC and one MSC can serve many BSCs
Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)
It is the main switching center of GSM network. NSS includes the following:
Mobile Switching Center (MSC): It is the basic unit of NSS, which supports call-switching or routing functions. Its purpose is the same as that of telephone exchange but due to advanced wireless technology, its working is much better than that of exchange. Each MSC provides coverage to a defined geographic area only.     
Home Location Register (HLR): For subscriber its a reference data base. Current location of MS, identification numbers and various addresses are maintained in it.
Visitor Location Register (VLR): It’s also a type of database. When an MS moves from home location to a visited location then its location is registered as a visitor in the VLR of visited system and this information is also updated in HLR of MS, by the VLR.
Equipment Identity Register (EIR): Its again a type of database, which contains information about MS equipment and check and identify its international validity of hardware and software to work properly.
Authentication center (AUC): Its a processing center and is normally worked together with HLR.Like HLR its also require to continuously access or update subscribers data. Its main purpose is to provide data security features to authenticate the subscriber. read more

What Is VPN (Virtual Private Network)

VPN (Virtual Private Network)
A Virtual Private Network is a method or technique to connecting your private network using public network (Internet) with privacy, security through encryption and others security measures. Using VPN you can communicate between two different locations across Internet with low cast and security.
The speed of sharing data using VPN depends upon your internet speed, if you are using cable internet or DSL to connect two different location for VPN then your data flow is much faster than any dial-up VPN connection.

How to Install VPN Server and VPN Client?
To configure VPN server and VPN client, first confirm that both ends  (client computer and server computer) are connected to Internet.
VPN Server
  • First click on Start button then Control Panel > Administrative Tools, here open the option Routing and Remote Access.
  • Browse the server name and then click the option Configure and Enable Routing and Remote Access from the Action menu, and then click the Next button. Then you will find the Virtual Private Network option in the Common Configurations dialog box. Here select the option Virtual Private Network and go for Next.
  • Here select the option Yes, all of the available protocols are on this list then click Next, In next step select the Internet connection option to connect internet.
  • In IP Address Assignment dialog box, select Automatically if you want to use DHCP server for IP address, otherwise you can your static IP address here if you have.
  • Here you will get a dialog box with name Managing Multiple Remote Access Server, check the option No, I don't want to set up this server to use Radius now and Finish it.

VPN Client
  • On the Client computer first connect Internet connection to make VPN setup.
  • Click Start Button and sitting then go to option Network and Dial-up Connections.
  • Here click on Make New Connection, select the option here Connection To a Private Network Through the Internet and Next.
  • Select first option Automatically Dial this Initial Connection, if you are using dial-up connection, otherwise select Do not dial the Initial Connection, if you are using cable internet.
  • In next step type the IP address of the computer to which you want to connect, then go Next and select option For All Users or Only for Myself, according to your requirement. Click Next and finish the connection. read more

What Is DNS? (Domain Name System)

Domain Name System (DNS) is a database system that translates a computer's fully qualified domain name into an IP address.
Networked computers use IP addresses to locate and connect to each other, but IP addresses can be difficult for people to remember. For example, on the web, it's much easier to remember the domain name than it is to remember its corresponding IP address ( DNS allows you to connect to another networked computer or remote service by using its user-friendly domain name rather than its numerical IP address. Conversely, Reverse DNS (rDNS) translates an IP address into a domain name.
Each organization that maintains a computer network will have at least one server handling DNS queries. That server, called a name server, will hold a list of all the IP addresses within its network, plus a cache of IP addresses for recently accessed computers outside the network. Each computer on each network needs to know the location of only one name server. When your computer requests an IP address, one of three things happens, depending on whether or not the requested IP address is within your local network:
  • If the requested IP address is registered locally (i.e., it's within your organization's network), you'll receive a response directly from one of the local name servers listed in your workstation configuration. In this case, there usually is little or no wait for a response.

  • If the requested IP address is not registered locally (i.e., outside your organization's network), but someone within your organization has recently requested the same IP address, then the local name server will retrieve the IP address from its cache. Again, there should be little or no wait for a response.

  • If the requested IP address is not registered locally, and you are the first person to request information about this system in a certain period of time (ranging from 12 hours to one week), then the local name server will perform a search on behalf of your workstation. This search may involve querying two or more other name servers at potentially very remote locations. These queries can take anywhere from a second or two up to a minute (depending on how well connected you are to the remote network and how many intermediate name servers must be contacted). Sometimes, due to the lightweight protocol used for DNS, you may not receive a response. In these cases, your workstation or client software may continue to repeat the query until a response is received, or you may receive an error message.
When you use an application such as telnet to connect to another computer, you most likely type in the domain name rather than the IP address of that computer. The telnet application takes the domain name and uses one of the above methods to retrieve its corresponding IP address from the name server. A good analogy is to think of DNS as an electronic telephone book for a computer network. If you know the name of the computer in question, the name server will look up its IP address. read more

What Is Network?

What is Network?
A network or communication network is a system of interconnected communication devices that can communicate with one another and share information. Therefore computer network can be defined as:
A system in which more than one computers or large number of computers are interconnected together, communicate freely with one another and share information is called computer network.
A network can be internal to an organization or span the world by connecting itself to the internet. In computer network, network operating system is used that controls and co-ordinates the activities of computers that are connected to the network. The example of these operating systems are: windows NT, UNIX, and Novell etc. read more

Thursday, 3 March 2011

DOS Command Index

    DOS Command Index
Information about all current DOS commands


APPEND [d:]path[;][d:]path[...]
APPEND [/X:on|off][/path:on|off] [/E]

Displays or sets the search path for data files. DOS will search the specified path(s) if the file is not found in the current path.


ASSIGN x=y [...] /sta

Redirects disk drive requests to a different drive.


ATTRIB [d:][path]filename [/S]
ATTRIB [+R|-R] [+A|-A] [+S|-S] [+H|-H] [d:][path]filename [/S]

Sets or displays the read-only, archive, system, and hidden attributes of a file or directory.


BACKUP d:[path][filename] d:[/S][/M][/A][/F:(size)] [/P][/D:date] [/T:time] [/L:[path]filename]

Makes a backup copy of one or more files. (In DOS Version 6, this program is stored on the DOS supplemental disk.)


BREAK =on|off

Used from the DOS prompt or in a batch file or in the CONFIG.SYS file to set (or display) whether or not DOS should check for a Ctrl + Break key combination.


BUFFERS=(number),(read-ahead number)

Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set the number of disk buffers (number) that will be available for use during data input. Also used to set a value for the number of sectors to be read in advance (read-ahead) during data input operations.


CALL [d:][path]batchfilename [options]

Calls another batch file and then returns to current batch file to continue.


CHCP (codepage)

Displays the current code page or changes the code page that DOS will use.


CHDIR (CD) [d:]path
CHDIR (CD)[..]

Displays working (current) directory and/or changes to a different directory.


CHKDSK [d:][path][filename] [/F][/V]

Checks a disk and provides a file and memory status report.


CHOICE [/C[:]keys] [/N][/S][/T[:]c,nn] [text]

Used to provide a prompt so that a user can make a choice while a batch program is running.

CLS (Clear Screen)


Clears (erases) the screen.


COMMAND [d:][path] [device] [/P][/E:(size)] [/MSG][/Y [/C (command)|/K (command)]

Starts a new version of the DOS command processor (the program that loads the DOS Internal programs).


COMP [d:][path][filename] [d:][path][filename] [/A][/C][/D][/L][/N:(number)]

Compares two groups of files to find information that does not match. (See FC command).


COPY [/Y|-Y] [/A][/B] [d:][path]filename [/A][/B] [d:][path][filename] [/V]
COPY [/Y|-Y][/A][/B] [d:][path]filename+[d:][path]filename[...][d:][path][filename] [/V]

Copies and appends files.


COUNTRY=country code,[code page][,][d:][filename]

Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to tell DOS to use country-specific text conventions during processing.


CTTY (device)

Changes the standard I/O (Input/Output) device to an auxiliary device.


DATE mm-dd-yy

Displays and/or sets the system date.


DBLSPACE / automount=drives
DBLSPACE /chkdsk [/F] [d:]
DBLSPACE /compress d: [/newdrive=host:] [/reserve=size] [/F]
DBLSPACE /create d: [/newdrive=host:] [/reserve=size] [/size=size]
DBLSPACE /defragment [d:] ]/F]
DBLSPACE /delete d:
DBLSPACE /doubleguard=0|1
DBLSPACE /format d:
DBLSPACE [/info] [d:]
DBLSPACE /mount[=nnn] host: [/newdrive=d:]
DBLSPACE /ratio[=ratio] [d:] [/all]
DBLSPACE /size[=size] [/reserve=size] d:
DBLSPACE /uncompress d:
DBLSPACE /unmount [d:]

A program available with DOS 6.0 that allows you to compress information on a disk.


DEBUG [pathname] [parameters]

An MS-DOS utility used to test and edit programs.


DEFRAG [d:] [/F][/S[:]order] [/B][/skiphigh [/LCD|/BW|/GO] [/H]
DEFRAG [d:] [/V][/B][/skiphigh] [/LCD]|/BW|/GO] [/H]

Optimizes disk performance by reorganizing the files on the disk.


DEL (ERASE) [d:][path]filename [/P]

Deletes (erases) files from disk.



Deletes all files from previous versions of DOS after a 5.0 or 6.0 installation.


DELTREE [/Y] [d:]path [d:]path[...]

Deletes (erases) a directory including all files and subdirectories that are in it.


DEVICE=(driver name)

Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to tell DOS which device driver to load.


DEVICEHIGH=(driver name)

Like DEVICE, DEVICEHIGH is used in the CONFIG.SYS file to tell DOS which device driver software to use for devices; however, this option is used to install the device driver into the upper memory area.


DIR [d:][path][filename] [/A:(attributes)] [/O:(order)] [/B][/C][/CH][/L][/S][/P][/W]

Displays directory of files and directories stored on disk.


DISKCOMP [d:] [d:][/1][/8]

Compares the contents of two diskettes.


DISKCOPY [d:] [d:][/1][/V][/M]

Makes an exact copy of a diskette.



Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to specify the memory location for DOS. It is used to load DOS into the upper memory area and to specify whether or not the upper memory blocks will be used.


DOSKEY [reinstall] [/bufsize=size][/macros][/history][/insert|/overstrike] [macroname=[text]]

Loads the Doskey program into memory which can be used to recall DOS commands so that you can edit them.


DOSSHELL [/B] [/G:[resolution][n]]|[/T:[resolution][n]]

Initiates the graphic shell program using the specified screen resolution.


DRIVPARM= /D:(number) [/C] [/F:(form factor)] [/H:(number)] [/I][ /N][/S:(number)] [/T:(tracks)]

Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set parameters for a disk drive.


ECHO on|off
ECHO (message)

Displays messages or turns on or off the display of commands in a batch file.


EDIT [d:][path]filename [/B][/G][/H][/NOHI]

Starts the MS-DOS editor, a text editor used to create and edit ASCII text files.


EMM386 [on|off|auto] [w=on|off]

Enables or disables EMM386 expanded-memory support on a computer with an 80386 or higher processor.


EXE2BIN [d:][path]filename [d:][path]filename

Converts .EXE (executable) files to binary format.



Exits a secondary command processor.


EXPAND [d:][path]filename [[d:][path]filename[ . . .]]

Expands a compressed file.


FASTHELP [command][command] /?

Displays a list of DOS commands with a brief explanation of each.


FASTOPEN d:[=n][/X]

Keeps track of the locations of files for fast access.


FC [/A][/C][/L][/Lb n][/N][/T][/W][number] [d:][path]filename [d:][path]filename

or (for binary comparisons)
FC [/B][/number] [d:][path]filename [d:][path]filename

Displays the differences between two files or sets of files.



Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to specify the number of file-control blocks for file sharing.


FDISK [/status]

Prepares a fixed disk to accept DOS files for storage.



Used in the CONFIG.Sys file to specify the maximum number of files that can be open at the same time.


FIND [/V][/C][/I][/N] ÒstringÓ [d:][path]filename[...]

Finds and reports the location of a specific string of text characters in one or more files.


FOR %%(variable) IN (set) DO (command)

or (for interactive processing)
FOR %(variable) IN (set) DO (command)

Performs repeated execution of commands (for both batch processing and interactive processing).


FORMAT d:[/1][/4][/8][/F:(size)] [/N:(sectors)] [/T:(tracks)][/B|/S][/C][/V:(label)] [/Q][/U][/V]

Formats a disk to accept DOS files.


GOTO (label)

Causes unconditional branch to the specified label.


GRAFTABL [(code page)]
GRAFTABL [status]

Loads a table of character data into memory (for use with a color/graphics adapter).


GRAPHICS [printer type][profile] [/B][/R][/LCD][/PB:(id)] [/C][/F][/P(port)]

Provides a way to print contents of a graphics screen display.


HELP [command] [/B][/G][/H][/NOHI]

Displays information about a DOS command.


IF [NOT] EXIST filename (command) [parameters]
IF [NOT] (string1)==(string2) (command) [parameters]
IF [NOT] ERRORLEVEL (number) (command) [parameters]

Allows for conditional operations in batch processing.


INCLUDE= blockname

Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to allow you to use the commands from one CONFIG.SYS block within another.


INSTALL=[d: ][\path]filename [parameters]

Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to load memory-resident programs into conventional memory.


INTERLINK [client[:]=[server][:]]

Connects two computers via parallel or serial ports so that the computers can share disks and printer ports.


INTERSVR [d:][...][/X=d:][...] [/LPT:[n|address]] [/COM:[n|address]][/baud:rate] [/B][/V]

Starts the Interlink server.


JOIN d: [d:path]
JOIN d: [/D]

Allows access to the directory structure and files of a drive through a directory on a different drive.


KEYB [xx][,][yyy][,][d:][path]filename [/E][/ID:(number)]

Loads a program that replaces the support program for U. S. keyboards.


LABEL [d:][volume label]

Creates or changes or deletes a volume label for a disk.


LASTDRIVE=(drive letter)

Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set the maximum number of drives that can be accessed.


LOADFIX [d:][path]filename [parameters]

Ensures that a program is loaded above the first 64K of conventional memory, and runs the program.


LOADHIGH (LH) [d:][path]filename [parameters]

Loads memory resident application into reserved area of memory (between 640K-1M).


MEM [/program|/debug|/classify|/free|/module(name)] [/page]

Displays amount of installed and available memory, including extended, expanded, and upper memory.


MEMMAKER [/B][/batch][/session][/swap:d] [/T][/undo][/W:size1,size2]

Starts the MemMaker program, a program that lets you optimize your computer's memory.



Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set the colors that will be used by DOS to display text on the screen.


MENUDEFAULT=blockname, [timeout]

Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set the startup configuration that will be used by DOS if no key is pressed within the specified timeout period.


MENUITEM=blockname, [menutext]

Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to create a start-up menu from which you can select a group of CONFIG.SYS commands to be processed upon reboot.


MIRROR [d:]path [d:] path [...]
MIRROR [d1:][d2:][...] [/T(drive)(files)] [/partn][/U][/1]

Saves disk storage information that can be used to recover accidentally erased files.

(MD) (Internal)

MKDIR (MD) [d:]path

Creates a new subdirectory.


MODE LPT#[:][n][,][m][,][P][retry]
MODE [n],m[,T]
MODE (displaytype,linetotal)
MODE COMn[:]baud[,][parity][,][databits][,][stopbits][,][retry]
MODE LPT#[:]=COMn [retry]
MODE CON[RATE=(number)][DELAY=(number)]
MODE (device) CODEPAGE PREPARE=(codepage) [d:][path]filename
MODE (device) CODEPAGE PREPARE=(codepage list) [d:][path]filename
MODE (device) CODEPAGE SELECT=(codepage)

Sets mode of operation for devices or communications.


MORE < (filename or command)

Sends output to console, one screen at a time.


MOVE [/Y|/-Y] [d:][path]filename[,[d:][path]filename[...]] destination

Moves one or more files to the location you specify. Can also be used to rename directories.


MSAV [d:] [/S|/C][/R][/A][/L][/N][/P][/F][/video][/mouse]
MSAV /video

Scans your computer for known viruses.


MSBACKUP [setupfile] [/BW|/LCD|/MDA]

Used to backup or restore one or more files from one disk to another.


MSCDEX /D:driver [/D:driver2. . .] [/E][/K][/S][/V][/L:letter] [/M:number]

Used to gain access to CD-ROM drives (new with DOS Version 6).


MSD [/B][/I]
MSD [/I] [/F[d:][path]filename [/P[d:][path]filename [/S[d:][path]filename

Provides detailed technical information about your computer.


NLSFUNC [d:][path]filename

Used to load a file with country-specific information.



Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to specify the state of the NumLock key.


PATH [d:]path[;][d:]path[...]

Sets or displays directories that will be searched for programs not in the current directory.


PAUSE [comment]

Suspends execution of a batch file until a key is pressed.


POWER [adv:max|reg|min]|std|off]

Used to turn power management on and off, report the status of power management, and set levels of power conservation.


PRINT [/B:(buffersize)] [/D:(device)] [/M:(maxtick)] [/Q:(value] [/S:(timeslice)][/U:(busytick)] [/C][/P][/T] [d:][path][filename] [...]

Queues and prints data files.


PROMPT [prompt text] [options]

Changes the DOS command prompt.


RECOVER [d:][path]filename

Resolves sector problems on a file or a disk. (Beginning with DOS Version 6, RECOVER is no longer available ).


REM [comment]

Used in batch files and in the CONFIG.SYS file to insert remarks (that will not be acted on).


RENAME (REN) [d:][path]filename [d:][path]filename

Changes the filename under which a file is stored.


REPLACE [d:][path]filename [d:][path] [/A][/P][/R][/S][/U][/W]

Replaces stored files with files of the same name from a different storage location.


RESTORE d: [d:][path]filename [/P][/S][/B:mm-dd-yy] [/A:mm-dd-yy][/E:hh:mm:ss] [/L:hh:mm:ss] [/M][/N][/D]

Restores to standard disk storage format files previously stored using the BACKUP command.


RMDIR (RD) [d:]path

Removes a subdirectory.


SCANDISK [d: [d: . . .]|/all][/checkonly|/autofix[/nosave]|/custom][/surface][/mono][/nosummay]
SCANDISK volume-name[/checkonly|/autofix[/nosave]|/custom][/mono][/nosummary]
SCANDISK /fragment [d:][path]filename
SCANDISK /undo [undo-d:][/mono]

Starts the Microsoft ScanDisk program which is a disk analysis and repair tool used to check a drive for errors and correct any problems that it finds.


SELECT [d:] [d:][path] [country code][keyboard code]

Formats a disk and installs country-specific information and keyboard codes (starting with DOS Version 6, this command is no longer available).


SET (string1)=(string2)

Inserts strings into the command environment. The set values can be used later by programs.


SETVER [d:]:path][filename (number)][/delete][/quiet]

Displays the version table and sets the version of DOS that is reported to programs.


SHARE [/F:space] [/L:locks]

Installs support for file sharing and file locking.


SHELL=[d:][path]filename [parameters]

Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to specify the command interpreter that DOS should use.



Increases number of replaceable parameters to more than the standard ten for use in batch files.


SORT [/R][/+n] < (filename)
SORT [/R][/+n] > (filename2)

Sorts input and sends it to the screen or to a file.



Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to set the number of stack frames and the size of each stack frame.


SUBMENU=blockname, [menutext]

Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to create a multilevel menu from which you can select start-up options.


SUBST d: d:path

Substitutes a virtual drive letter for a path designation.


SWITCHES= [/K][/F][/N][/W]

Used in the CONFIG.SYS file to configure DOS in a special way; for example, to tell DOS to emulate different hardware configurations.


SYS [source] d:

Transfers the operating system files to another disk.


TIME hh:mm[:ss][.cc][A|P]

Displays current time setting of system clock and provides a way for you to reset the time.


TREE [d:][path] [/A][/F]

Displays directory paths and (optionally) files in each subdirectory.


TYPE [d:][path]filename

Displays the contents of a file.


UNDELETE [d:][path][filename] [/DT|/DS|/DOS]
UNDELETE [/list|/all|/purge[d:]|/status|/load|/U|/S[d:]|/Td:[-entries]]

Restores files deleted with the DELETE command.


UNFORMAT d: [/J][/L][/test][/partn][/P][/U]

Used to undo the effects of formatting a disk.



Displays the DOS version number.


VERIFY on|off

Turns on the verify mode; the program checks all copying operations to assure that files are copied correctly.


VOL [d:]

Displays a disk's volume label.


VSAFE [/option[+|-]...] [/NE][/NX][Ax|/Cx] [/N][/D][/U]

VSAFE is a memory-resident program that continuously monitors your computer for viruses and displays a warning when it finds one.


XCOPY [d:][path]filename [d:][path][filename] [/A][/D:(date)] [/E][/M][/P][/S][/V][/W][Y\-Y]
Copies directories, subdirectories, and files.

Syntax Notes

To be functional, each DOS command must be entered in a particular way: this command entry structure is known as the command's "syntax." The syntax "notation" is a way to reproduce the command syntax in print.

For example, you can determine the items that are optional, by looking for information that is printed inside square brackets. The notation [d:], for example, indicates an optional drive designation. The command syntax, on the other hand, is how YOU enter the command to make it work.

Command Syntax Elements
1. Command Name

The DOS command name is the name you enter to start the DOS program (a few of the DOS commands can be entered using shortcut names). The DOS command name is always entered first. In this book, the command is usually printed in uppercase letters, but you can enter command names as either lowercase or uppercase or a mix of both.

2. Space

Always leave a space after the command name.

3. Drive Designation

The drive designation (abbreviated in this book as "d:") is an option for many DOS commands. However, some commands are not related to disk drives and therefore do not require a drive designation. Whenever you enter a DOS command that deals with disk drives and you are already working in the drive in question, you do not have to enter the drive designator. For example, if you are working in drive A (when the DOS prompt A> is showing at the left side of the screen) and you want to use the DIR command to display a directory listing of that same drive, you do not have to enter the drive designation. If you do not enter a drive designation, DOS always assumes you are referring to the drive you are currently working in (sometimes called the "default" drive).

4. A Colon

When referring to a drive in a DOS command, you must always follow the drive designator with a colon (:) (this is how DOS recognizes it as a drive designation).

5. Pathname

A pathname (path) refers to the path you want DOS to follow in order to act on the DOS command. As described in Chapter 3, it indicates the path from the current directory or subdirectory to the files that are to be acted upon.

6. Filename

A filename is the name of a file stored on disk. As described in Chapter 1, a filename can be of eight or fewer letters or other legal characters.

7. Filename Extension

A filename extension can follow the filename to further identify it. The extension follows a period and can be of three or fewer characters. A filename extension is not required.

8. Switches

Characters shown in a command syntax that are represented by a letter or number and preceded by a forward slash (for example, "/P") are command options (sometimes known as "switches"). Use of these options activate special operations as part of a DOS command's functions.

9. Brackets

Items enclosed in square brackets are optional; in other words, the command will work in its basic form without entering the information contained inside the brackets.

10. Ellipses

Ellipses (...) indicate that an item in a command syntax can be repeated as many times as needed.

11. Vertical Bar

When items are separated by a vertical bar (|), it means that you enter one of the separated items. For example: ON | OFF means that you can enter either ON or OFF, but not both read more

Wednesday, 2 March 2011

Installing Linux On Your Pc Part 3

Installing Linux:

The process is fairly straightforward.
  1. Use the BIOS to ensure that your machine always tries to boot from the CD-drive before looking to the hard-drive.
  2. Put Linux CD 1 in the CD-drive.
  3. Reboot your machine.
  4. You should see the Linux installer start up.
  5. Follow the directions for installing a "Workstation" version of Linux.
  6. When you get to the section concerning partitioning you will be asked "Remove all data on this drive?" Click NO. You want to select "keep all existing partitions and install Linux on existing free space". Also, here you will be offered the opportunity to have the installer automatically partition. Accept that, but also make sure you check the "review partitions" checkbox. The automatic scheme creates a single large "/" partition. On the next page you will be able to add other partitions (e.g., /home, /var, /usr, etc.).
  7. In "Network configuration", you will probably want to use DHCP if your PC is connected to an existing network (i.e., a cable modem, DSL, etc.) Otherwise you can manually set it to an address different from that of any other machines in your home.
  8. When you get to the section in which you specify a superuser password, you should also make sure to create a regular user account. It is good practice to never log directly into a linux box as the superuser (i.e., "root") Instead, log in as a regular user, then use the "su" command from a terminal window to temporarily switch to superuser mode. Alternatively, whenever you try, as a regular user, to run a tool or application that requires superuser capabilities, you will be prompted to enter the root password.
  9. In the "Firewall Configuration" section, you should enable SSH and HTTP.
  10. When you get to the section concerning selection of packages, choose to manually select them, because you will want to make sure that the installation includes Apache and MySQL. You do not need DNS server, Mail server, News server, etc., unless you really want to set up a server for those services--and I don't think you do.
  11. After all the packages are installed (which can take about an hour), you will be asked to provide a floppy that will be configured so that you can use it to boot into Linux mode explicitly.
  12. When you are all done, reboot the machine. After the BIOS finishes you should get a GRUB or LILO window allowing you to select which system you will boot to: DOS (Windows) or Linux.

Other Stuff

Here are some URL's for other issues related to Linux installation and dual-booting.
Linux can access other filesystem partitions:
Dual booting linux/NT:
also: , and: (though I think this last one is obsolete with newer versions of RedHat.)
Dual booting to many other OS's: 
read more

Installing Linux On Your Pc Part 2

Using Partition Magic

  1. Place the CD in your drive.
  2. Run the installer.
  3. You will be asked to create two "rescue" floppy diskettes. Make sure you do this, in case something goes wrong during the repartitioning.
  4. When asked, DO NOT register the software, as the serial numbers are already registered with EMU.
  5. Run Partition Magic.
  6. You want to use the "Resize/Move" operation to change the size of your existing DOS partition. The program shows a small graphic of your existing partitions, below which is a text menu of the partitions (there is probably just one, the DOS partition). Select it, then choose to resize it.
  7. Shrink the DOS partition so that you create at least 3GB of free space on your hard-drive (5 or 6 would be much better.) You do not want to define a new partition within the free space (the Linux installer will do that), just leave the space "free" (unoccupied).
  8. You have to click on the "apply" button. Eventually you'll get a dialog box telling you the system has to reboot into DOS mode, or some such. Say okay.
  9. The machine should reboot into Windows. If you look at the properties of your hard-drive icon (C:) you should that the disk space is smaller than it was. read more

Installing Linux On Your Pc Part 1


The easiest method is convert a PC having a single hard-drive into an exclusively Linux-based machine. This would necessitate losing everything on that hard-drive and installing Linux on it. Many people, however, own only one PC, and would like to continue using that PC as a Windows box. If you are of that type, you should consider setting up your (or a) PC as a "dual-boot" machine, capable of booting either into Windows or Linux.
There are two ways to do this, neither is very complicated. The simplest is if your PC has two hard-drives. Just move everything off the smaller-capacity drive onto the larger, then run the Linux installer, being careful to install Linux on the (now redundant) smaller-capacity drive. After the installation, you can use the PC's BIOS to select which drive to boot from.
The more complicated (but still easy) method is to provide a spare partition on a hard-drive onto which to install Linux. The main difficulty here is that most people, when installing Windows, do not provide multiple partitions; their hard-drive consists of a single, large partition, with Windows already installed on it. In that case, you'll have to create a new partition by shrinking the existing one. The trick is to do this without losing any of the data on the existing partition.
Partition Magic (and similar software) repartitions hard-drives without losing data (hopefully!) It rearranges the data on a partition so that it is clustered to "one side" of the partition, and then changes the partition definition table on the drive. The end result is that you have free space on your drive onto which you can install Linux. read more

Microsoft Work On Windows 8

While we do not have official confirmation yet that Microsoft has started work on the third milestone of the upcoming Windows 8 operating system, we have the next best thing: Leaked information from Zukona, a user with a track record of reliable Windows build information.
Zukona posted the build string of one of the latest Windows 8 builds: 6.2.7956.0.winmain_win8m3.110228-1701
The win8m3 indicates that it is a Milestone 3 build, 110228 that it was compiled yesterday on February 28, 2011.
If we look back, Milestone 3 was the last step before Microsoft moved to beta builds of Windows 7 and it is likely that the Redmond company has intentions to stay true to the development process.
Windows 7 Milestone 3 appeared in September 2008 for the first time, 13 months before the final release of the operating system. If we take that as a measure, Windows 8 could be ready in the first quarter of 2012, any maybe even earlier if Microsoft decides to release only one public beta before the release candidate.
Windows 7 Beta was released January 2009, a good three months after the first Milestone 3 release. It could mean that we will see a first Windows 8 beta release in June or July 2011.
An early 2012 release would fall into line with Dell’s product roadmap which hinted at a Windows 8 Tablet in the first quarter of 2012.
The Windows 8 timeline could look like this:
March 2011: Windows 8 Milestone 3
June / July 2011: Windows 8 Beta
September / October 2001: Windows 7 Release Candidate
Early 2012: Windows 8 final.
read more

What Is LINUX?

definition -
Linux (often pronounced LIH-nuhks with a short "i") is a Unix-like operating system that was designed to provide personal computer users a free or very low-cost operating system comparable to traditional and usually more expensive Unix systems. Linux has a reputation as a very efficient and fast-performing system. Linux's kernel (the central part of the operating system) was developed by Linus Torvalds at the University of Helsinki in Finland. To complete the operating system, Torvalds and other team members made use of system components developed by members of the Free Software Foundation for the GNU Project.
Linux is a remarkably complete operating system, including a graphical user interface, an X Window System, TCP/IP, the Emacs editor, and other components usually found in a comprehensive Unix system. Although copyrights are held by various creators of Linux's components, Linux is distributed using the Free Software Foundation's copyleft stipulations that mean any modified version that is redistributed must in turn be freely available.
Unlike Windows and other proprietary systems, Linux is publicly open and extendible by contributors. Because it conforms to the Portable Operating System Interface standard user and programming interfaces, developers can write programs that can be ported to other operating systems. Linux comes in versions for all the major microprocessor platforms including the Intel, PowerPC, Sparc, and Alpha platforms. It's also available on IBM's S/390. Linux is distributed commercially by a number of companies. A magazine, Linux Journal, is published as well as a number of books and pocket references.
Linux is sometimes suggested as a possible publicly-developed alternative to the desktop predominance of Microsoft Windows. Although Linux is popular among users already familiar with Unix, it remains far behind Windows in numbers of users. However, its use in the business enterprise is growing.
Linux is a contraction for Linus' Unix; the short i sound preferred by most (including Torvalds) derives from the Swedish pronunciation of Linus. read more
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